Information A-Z

This is a growing resource of health information, advice and research on all matters concerning Hypoparathyroidism and related parathyroid conditions. Contributions welcome.

Please scroll down for links to articles and research about
Di George
HDR Syndrome
Parathyroid Glands
Parathyroid hormone
Secondary Hypoparathyroidism
Vitamin D

Click here for links to Patient & other Organisations, NHS, Direct Gov ( benefits, employment) MHRA  (reporting side effects), and making a complaint.



Diagnosis & Management of Hypocalcaemia: Clinical Review (Cooper & Gittoes 2008 BMJ)

Hypocalcaemic Disorders  (RV Thakker 2001 Medecine)

A scientific presentation on calcium regulation : Presentation slides Prof Raj Thakker

Disorders of Calcium Concentration
Merk Manuals Online Medical Library

Hypocalcaemia: Diagnosis and Treatment
Fitzpatrick ( 2002)


Factors that Inhibit Calcium Absorption

Management of Post-operative Hypocalcaemia

Nutrition: Magic minerals - Calcium

Your Body and Calcium

Cancer and calcium levels

Calcification on the brain

Basal ganglia and HPTH



Recognition of HPTH in Infants and Children


The Importance of Diet in Managing Hypoparathyroidism

Calcium Content in Foods

Vegan Sources of Calcium

Vitamin D in the diet

Patrick Holford
Nutritionist, author of 'The New Optimum Nutrition Bible' and founder of the Institute for Optimum Nutrition (ION)

Nutrition and metabolism
Study on weight loss for women with low carbs and resistance training

Devine Intervention
Food and excercise blog from Michelle Devine( trainer, nutritionist and former HPTH patient.)


Di George Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome
BBC Health

DiGeorge Syndrome presenting as late onset hypocalcaemia in adulthood
(Johnston, Donnelly, Morrison and Hunter-  Ulster Medical Society 2008)

22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Hypoparathyroidism and 22q11 deletion syndrome.
Taylor SC, Morris G,Wilson D, Davies SJ, Gregory JW.  Arch Dis Child 2003; 88: 520-2.

Hypocalcemia and chromosome 22q11 microdeletion.
Garabedian M. Genet.Couns.1999; 10: 389-94.



Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, potassium and sodium are all electrolytes which need to be kept balanced in the body.



What is endocrinology?
From the Society for Endocrinology

Endocrine Web
Endocrinology information website for patients

Endocrine Control of Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis (Bowen 2007)
From Hypertexts for Biomedical Sciences, Endocrine Sysytem, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands



Mind and Body: Head Games and Hypoparathyroidism

Psychiatric Aspects of Parathyroid Disease

Well-being, mood and calcium homeostasis in patients with hypoparathyroidism receiving standard treatment with calcium and vitamin D



Rights at work




Graves Disease

Thyroidectomy for Graves Disease


Hashimoto's Disease

Hashimoto's Disease


HDR Syndrome

HDR syndrome
Hypoparathyroidism, deafness & renal dysplasia syndrome



You and Your Hormones
A new web-based project by the Society for Endocrinology that aims to give patients and the general public access to reliable online information on endocrine science.


Hypoparathyroidism : Clinical Review  (Shoback 2008 NEJM)

A Doctor's Personal Experience of Hypoparathyroidism

Can treatment for post-thyroidectomy Hypoparathyroidism ever be stopped?

Familial Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism

FAQs About Hypoparathyroidism

Understanding the Causes of Hypoparathyroidism

Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism

Views from a French Doctor diagnosed with Hypoparathyroidism


Hypoparathyroidism - for patients
Patient UK leaflet, co-authored by HPTH UK

Hypoparathyroidism - for doctors
Patient UK

A guide to Hypoparathyroidism
Patient Information leaflet from the Hypoparathyroidism Association USA,
co- authored by HPTH UK.

Hypoparathyroidism (from GP notebook)

Hypoparathyroidism (from Medicdirect)

Hypoparathyroidism (from Surgery door)

Working Together



Hyperparathyroidism - for patients
Patient UK - comprehensive medical information as provised by doctors and nurses to patiets during consultations

Hyperparathryoidism - for doctors
Patient UK

Hyperparathyroidism, an educational service of the Norman Parathyroid Center

National Parathyroid Education Foundation , USA

Associate Professor Terry Diamond, Department of Endocrinology, University of New South Wales, Australia

How to diagnose and test for hypercalcaemia

When hormones go haywire

Is mild Hyperparathyroidsm worth treating?

Low Vitamin D and Hyperparathyroidism



Chronic Kidney disease - what it is, what it means

Chronic Kidney Disease - RCP Guidelines



From the Vitamin D Council

Magnesium: A Key to Calcium Absorption
By Nan Kathryn Fuchs, Ph.D.

Nutrition: Magnesium the magic mineral

Magnesium, treating a deficiency and red cell magnesium
Dr Myhill



The Medic Alert Foundation

Medicines Guide
New resource giving information about individual medicines that is up-to-date, reliable and understandable

Withdrawal of alfacalcidol supplements following thyroidectomy: baseline plasma PTH predicts successful outcome (Morris & Perros 2006)

Alfacalcidol and Calcium Supplement Reduction in Post-Thyroidectomy Patients (Morris & Perros 2005)

Severe hypocalcaemia after being given intravenous bisphosphonate



Oestrogen and Calcium
Includes excerpt from University of Columbia Health Services

Micronutrients and Pre Menstrual Syndrone:The Case for Calcium
Thys -Jacobs  - Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 19, No. 2, 220-227 (2000)

Oestrogen and calcium homeostasis in women with hypoparathyroidism
Oestrogen status can affect the requirement for vitamin D in women with hypoparathyroidism
Janet McIlroy, Frances Dryburgh,John Hinnie, Dargie, Al-Rawi, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, BMJ 1999;319:1252-1253

Cyclical changes in calcium metabolism across the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Thys-Jacobs, McMahon, Bilezikian JCEM 2007


Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid Glands and Calcium (Perros 2007)

Parathyroid Gland Disorders
Everything you need to know about hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid surgery, parathyroid tumors, parathyroid disease, parathyroid hormone problems, and high calcium by USA doctors who do 50 parathyroid surgeries a week.


Parathyroid hormone
(PTH 1-34 Forteo and PTH 1-84 Preotect )

Hypoparathyroidism: Is It Time for Replacement Therapy?
Horwitz and Stewart (93 (9): 3307 JECM 2008)

Effects of once versus twice -daily PTH 1-34 therpay in children with HPTH (Winer et al 2008)

Tereparatide for treatment of hypoparathyroidism




(yes, they get it too!)

Hyperparathyroidism in cats



Balancing Potassium levels



Pregnancy, breastfeeding and HPTH
By HPTH UK member Blaithin O'Donnell

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: an ongoing epidemic.
Bruce W. Hollis and Carol L. Wagner

Hypocalcaemia in pregancy: Vitamin D deficiency and PHP 1b
Lawrence, Mapplebeck, Harnett & Almond

Maternal calcium and skeletal homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation ENDOTEXT: Chapter 3 - Urszula S. Masiukiewicz, M.D., and Karl L. Insogna, M.D. June 30, 2003

Management of hypocalcaemia in pregnancy
Nizar, Harrold, Jones & Milles (2009)Good Hope Hospital-Heart of England Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK. Presented at Society for Endocrinolgy BES 2009, Harrogate, UK

Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism - two successful pregnancies despite uncontrolled hypocalcaemia


Pregnancy and breastfeeding with hypoparathyroidism etc
Endotext, Chapter 3. Calcium Metabolism during Pregnancy and Lactation



A novel mutation causing PHP1a with congenital hypothyroidism and osteoma cutis - case report


Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), Pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) or Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO)

Psuedohypoprathyroidism type 1b complicated by parathyroid bone disease
Palin, Shepherd, Rahim, Dyer & Bates Presented at Society for Endocrinology BES 2007, Birmingham, UK. Endocrine Abstracts 13 P28

Pseudohypoparathyroidism: an evolving clinical and biochemical picture


Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

NICE Guidelines for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid surgery: outcome, follow-up and management of 231 patients treated between 1989 and 2007

Latest Parathyroid Test for Use During Surgery



Thyroid Manager

Radiation and Cancer

UK Guidelines for the Use of Thyroid Function Tests

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)

Symptoms of hypothyroidsm - checklist


Vitamin D

Vitamin D Deficiency: Clinical Review (Holick 2007 NEJM)

Dr Holick talking about Vitamin D ( on you tube)

....and here

Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the
UK (WD Fraser et al 2008)

My Vitamin D results are in ...
Blog by Dr John Briffa July 2009

New Vitamin D Report (USA Sept 2007)

The Vitamin D Newsletter May 2008

The Truth about Vitamin D and Cancer – the whole story

The Role of Vitamin D in Cancer Prevention

Facts about Vitamin D plus dietary sheet

Patient Guide to Vitamin D

Vitamin D and Magnesium
From the Vitamin D Council

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